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What will sexuality look like in the future?




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Many of our answers probably include a reference to reproduction. Sex is the primary way that babies are made.

But what will we think about sex if it has almost nothing to do with procreation?

Since the birth of the world’s first “test tube baby” in 1978, around eight million people have been born by IVF. And the number may vastly increase in the future as our tools to identify genetic risks in embryos become more sophisticated.

“My strongest prediction is in the future people will still have sex – but not as often for the purpose of making babies,” Henry T Greely, author of The End of Sex And The Future of Human Reproduction, says.

“In 20 to 40 years, most people all over the world with good health coverage will choose to conceive in a lab.”

Greely’s book explores some of the legal and ethical challenges facing the science of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). “Like most things, there will be a fair amount of visceral negative reaction initially, but as time goes on and kids [born via PGD] prove not to have two heads and a tail,” the public will come not only to tolerate but to prefer reproducing non-sexually.

And in that world – a world where babies are made in labs; where pregnancy-via-sexual intercourse is elected only by a minority of women; where sexual ethics have nothing to do with procreative possibilities – what will sex mean?

That’s a question David Halperin asks in a provocative essay of the same name. Sex, we reason, must always have a why. Such reasoning isn’t necessarily a bad thing. After all, to be human means to be curious, intellectually and emotionally. Experiencing sex and theorising about what it could mean seems very natural for animals that spend much of our time engaging in higher-level criticism.

Biologically, there is one an obvious why to human sex. We have sex because it fulfills biological drives, including the necessary drives to procreate and bond. In fact, these are the two whys that have passed down to us in the Western tradition, both of which are organised around a telos, or end goal.

Biologically speaking, the purpose of sex may

Biologically speaking, the purpose of sex may seem obvious – to reproduce. PHOTO | UNSPLASH

As I wrote in a previous article, it was the stoics who, attempting to curb self-indulgence, tried to fit sex into a scheme of meaning: indulging in the pleasure of sex was alright as long as it was for the purposes of making babies. This ethic worked its way into the Christian tradition, famously through Augustine, and continues to wield enormous influence in the West.

According to this framework, sex is ethical when it is practised primarily for procreation. (To clarify, though this is presented as a Christian ethic, its origins lie elsewhere. In fact, the biblical book Song of Solomon celebrates wild, passionate, erotic sex on its own terms, between two lovers – not between a husband and wife, as later Christian commentators wrongly interpreted the poem.)

The other important why for sex comes from Aristotle, as Halperin points out. In Prior Analytics from the 4th Century BCE, the Greek philosopher offers the following syllogism:

“To be loved, then, is preferable to intercourse, according to the nature of erotic desire. Erotic desire, then, is more a desire for love than for intercourse. If it is most of all for that, that is also its end. Either intercourse, then, is not an end at all or it is for the sake of being loved.”

For Aristotle, as Halperin explains, “Love is the telos of erotic desire. It is not love that aims at sex as its goal… It is sex that aims at love.” The real reason we have sex, according to Aristotle’s proof, is not because we want to have sex, but because we want to love and be loved. Sex is not about something, but about something else, something higher, something nobler.

Like many people, Aristotle takes it for granted that sex and love go hand in hand – but he never seeks to demonstrate the soundness of this assumption. What he does demonstrate, however, at least as Halperin reads him, is that “sex is not the final aim of erotic desire”. And if that’s the case, then Halperin thinks the most interesting question to ask isn’t about the relationship between sex and love but the surprising relationship between sex and erotic desire. If Aristotle is correct, then sex has no erotic purpose – its real aim lies elsewhere. In short, sex isn’t actually about sex.

Why do we have sex then? To procreate, sure. To bond, fine. But those are just two of many possible answers. Like many cultural phenomena, sex exceeds its why. Think of food. From a survival standpoint, it makes sense that we eat, and that we eat together – after all, it was advantageous to our ancestors to pool their resources (more for our group means more for me). But when we move from those things to contemporary culinary culture – burgers topped with gold shavings, Instagram food accounts, the cooking network, happy hours with colleagues, after church potluck dinners – it becomes harder and harder to nail down the exact purpose of our relationship to food. The difference between us and many non-human animals is that we regularly take pleasure in doing useless things. We do them, that is, because we enjoy them, because participating in such activities brings us pleasure — the kind that distracts us from any why questions. It’s possible, writes Halperin, that “the act of sex makes sense only when it makes no sense.”

Perhaps it’s time to admit that enjoyment is the main reason most of us — including the most pious among us — have sex.

To be fair, there’s usually a point to having sex, otherwise we’d be doing something else. But the last few decades have seen us challenging the ideas that sex should only be had for specific purposes.

The pill was revolutionary on this front, giving some people plenty to fear. In a 1968 Readers Digest article, author Pearl Buck said, “Everyone knows what the pill is. It is a small object – yet its potential effect upon our society many be even more devastating than the nuclear bomb.” Like a good many conservatives’ ideas, Buck’s argument seemed to be informed by a hysteria that sex without why would spell the end of civilisation. For these folks, the so-called sexual revolution was to blame for modern relaxed views on sex practices.

While the sexual revolution is often used as a bogeyman to end rather than contribute to important conversations, sweeping changes in public perceptions of sex beginning in the 60s have been noted by researchers. In a 2015 research paper, Jean M Twenge, a psychology professor at San Diego State University, examined American attitudes toward sex from the 1970s to 2010s. Her conclusion: “Between the 1970s and the 2010s, Americans became more accepting of non-marital sex.”

Views of homosexuality are changing in some

Views of homosexuality are changing in some parts of the world – and may have opened the way for franker discussion of sex in general. PHOTO | FOTOSEARCH

Consistent with past research finding declines in religious orientation and increases in individualistic traits, more Americans believe that sexuality need not be restricted by social conventions. Recent generations are also acting on this belief, reporting a significantly higher number of sexual partners as adults and more having casual sex than those born earlier in the 20th Century.

Twenge points out that within a population, attitudes may still vary for many reasons (depending on age, race, sex, religious beliefs etc), but research shows that “meaningful generational changes in sexual attitudes and behaviour have occurred” over time.

Our views on sex, then, are very much the product of our location in a particular time and place. Our sexual ethics aren’t timeless: they evolved, and they will continue to evolve. Perhaps much more quickly than we are prepared for.

Like every human phenomenon, sexual activity came from somewhere. It isn’t just here. We’ve arrived at our sex practices and attitudes and ethics via a long and winding journey from animals that predate us, a journey that goes back to the earliest life in the universe.

But even if we concentrate on our species, we find plenty of evidence that some traditional ideas about sex are less natural than we thought. I once heard an American Evangelical preacher condemn homosexuality with what to his congregation seemed to be a funny joke. “I shouldn’t have to remind you that two men aren’t supposed to be together. Even barnyard animals know that!” What the pastor was arguing was that homosexuality is unnatural, which is why animals don’t practise it.

Except they do. Japanese macaques, fruit flies, flour beetles, albatrosses, bottlenose dolphins – these are just some of the more than 500 species in which homosexuality is observed, as Melissa Hogenboom has written.

To be sure, animals don’t identify as gay, but neither do they identify as not gay. Which brings us to the extremely obvious but rarely contemplated fact – that humans have, at least for the last century, defined themselves based on the kind of sex they have.

Penguins are known to form closely bonded

Penguins are known to form closely bonded same-sex pairs. PHOTO | AFP

Heterosexual sex has come to mean something; specifically, its meaning has been constructed in opposition to homosexual sex. If you want to understand what that meaning is, then you might start by asking yourself a question Jonathan Ned Katz poses in The Invention of Heterosexuality: “Whose interests have been served by the division of the world into heterosexual and homosexual?” Any child who was teased, as I was, for appearing gay knows that distinction was not made with their best interests in mind.


What’s interesting is to think about how long the hetero/homo line will continue to hold. A 2019 YouGov survey found that nearly four in 10 millennials don’t identify as “completely heterosexual.” That probably says less about changing sexual orientations than it does about the changing meaning of those orientations. Simply put, it is probably less important today than it was three decades ago to define one’s identity based on sexual activity. In a world where same-sex orientation and activity is largely accepted to be a healthy and natural variety of human sexuality, it is no longer very important to form a public identity based on sexual practices.

Perhaps the more we divorce sex from its why, the less people will think about what sex acts might mean and how those might contribute to an individual’s identity.

The question of the purpose of sex is not the stumbling block to gay culture that it is to straight culture. Some of that is situational: without the prospect of biological pregnancies and (until recently) marriage to tie them down, gay people are free to have sex for the sole purpose of having sex.

I don’t mean to suggest that gay sex doesn’t have a why: it can have many whys, including, of course, love. But gay culture has, historically, been more open to the idea that it might not always have a why, and that it doesn’t always need to. That, of course, might seem to buck those long-held and cherished cultural ideas and ethics about sex, which could perhaps explain the historic prejudice against gay people.

Like many children, I was taught to adjudicate the ethics of a sexual encounter based solely on whether or not it happened in a committed, monogamous relationship (usually marriage). But eventually, I started questioning this standard – particularly because the same people who taught it to me also taught me that humans were created by God a few thousand years ago. If their biology was so bad, then why pay them any mind on sex, which is a biological phenomenon?

I realised that theirs was not a helpful ethical scheme for gay people who are not able to conceive children through a sexual union. It seemed disingenuous at best, and cruel at worst, to advocate for a sexual standard that prevents a sizeable population of human beings from ever reaching it. Most acts of heterosexual sex do not result in a live birth, and yet for some reason that non-procreative sex is never condemned as unnatural, the way non-procreative homosexual sex has often been condemned.

Thankfully, opposition to homosexuality largely continues to decline. A study conducted by the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law looked at the changing attitudes of people across 141 countries. Eighty, or 57 percent, of those countries saw an increase in acceptance of LGBT people between the years of 1981 and 2014. It’s not all good news: while the researchers found that the traditionally accepting countries (Iceland, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Andorra, and Norway) have become more tolerant over time, the less accepting countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Georgia, Ghana) have become even less tolerant. While consistent anti-gay attitudes shouldn’t be overlooked, it’s important to remember that the majority of the countries studied show an increased tolerance for homosexuality.

 There are many reasons for widespread acceptance of homosexuality, including positive media portrayals of LGBT people, public support of medical and psychological organisations, and the fact that most people personally know LGBT people. (It’s harder to believe that gay people want to destroy civilisation when we’re your piano teacher or florist or chaplain or local firefighter.)

Granted, gay people – and I’ll focus on men here, since that’s what I’m most familiar with – aren’t always pristine examples of a finely-tuned sex ethic. Gay male communities continue to worship specific body types (muscular, lean, for example), which sends the message that those who don’t live up to those aesthetic standards (most of us) are less deserving or worthy than those who do. These exclusive standards have only become more ubiquitous thanks to technologies like Grindr, where men are reduced to pictures of their body parts, and the undesirable are quickly blocked. “No fats and fems” is, to our shame, an oft-heard refrain on these gay hook-up apps, which means we still have a lot of thinking to do when it comes to our sexual ethics.

But despite these shortcomings, it’s gay culture that has all this time been offering the world new ways to think about sexual ethics – ways that don’t involve procreation or marriage or love or even committed, monogamous relationships. Just consider one 2005 survey, which found 40% of gay couples endorse open relationships compared to 5% of straight couples. If these kinds of sexual experiences really do become the norm – as some suggest – it will have been gay people who opened that door.

I suppose some heterosexuals may take umbrage at these ideas, but it’s difficult to pretend that straight culture has the moral high ground on sexual issues. As I have previously written, popular culture in 2019 is replete with cases of dysfunctional straight relationships, affairs and marriages. The “traditional” heterosexual sexual ethic – which was, as historians have long held, invented in the 19th Century – has been tried and found wanting.

Over the years, various futurists have been predicting what the future of sex will be like. From virtual porn and human augmentation to remote hookups (where people, at a distance, bring each other to orgasm via haptic technologies), the future of sex will be more digital, more synthetic, less organic, less messy.

But while the future will no doubt bring with it major technological changes, we should also consider that some of the biggest changes in the future will involve new ideas.

There will be new ideas about procreation. Since 1978, more than eight million babies have been born through IVF. That number is set to drastically rise the more ubiquitous and affordable the technologies become. Birth control and contraception have also helped separate sex and procreation in our cultural imagination. If Greely’s predictions about PGD are right, then at some point within the next four decades, there will be a sea change when it comes to how babies are born. PGD will become “easy” (accessible and affordable) thanks to developments in genetics and stem cell research. Here’s how Greely sums up the research in The Guardian:

“A couple who wants children will visit a clinic – he will leave a sperm sample; she will leave a skin sample. A week or two later, the prospective parents will receive information on 100 embryos created from their cells, telling them what the embryos’ genomes predict about their future… Then they will select which embryos to move into the womb for possible pregnancy and birth.”

People might bristle at the thought of “designer babies,” but when we remember that most people who have babies select each other based on traits, knowing full well that such traits will likely be passed onto their offspring, it gets harder to draw a line between the technologies that Greely writes about and run-of-the-mill reproduction-via-sex.     

There will be new ideas about monogamy and commitment. Having one sexual partner for one’s entire adult life seems like a more easily achieved prospect when life expectancy is lower. But life expectancy for humans has been on the rise. From 1960 to 2017, the average increased by 20 years. By 2040, estimates claim life expectancy will be up more than four years. That’s a conservative number to some futurists. Steven Austad, for instance, believes the first human to live to 150 years old was born before 2001. How realistic is it to require someone to limit his- or herself to the same one sex partner for 130 years? But we needn’t look that far ahead. Even now, divorce and remarriage rates continue to climb. According to a 2013 Pew survey, four in 10 American marriages involve the remarriage of at least one of the couple. Perhaps, with longer life expectancies, “till death do us part” will simply cease to be our aim.

There will be new ideas about sexual identity. If sex ceases to mean anything other than sex; if children are not teased for having a “different” sexual orientation; if procreation happens in a lab; might future humans feel free to have sex with men and women at will? Or might they feel comfortable cultivating their own sexual desires? Is the concept of sexual orientation and identity tied to an archaic notion of reproduction? In the future, will words like “heterosexual” and “homosexual” be heard only in the history classroom?

These ideas will continue to become even more mainstream — thanks, in no small part, to the many LGBT people who have, for the past few decades, been inviting the dominant culture to rethink its sexual ethics.

A few years ago at a conference, I heard the philosopher and gender-theorist Judith Butler say, “Maybe the truly queer thing to do with sex is to just enjoy it.” I didn’t agree at the time, but I now realise she was onto something.

Perhaps sex will always be for something – but it will be for a whom, not a what. It will be for us, the people who have it, who enjoy it. The meaning of sex won’t exist apart from the compassion and enjoyment it brings people – the enjoyment of physical sensation, of social bonding, of experimenting.

In the future, the meaning of sex will be sex.



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Hong Kong protest models become major hit » Capital News




The models boast many features of the street protests © AFP / Philip FONG

, Hong Kong, China, Jan 20 – Intricately detailed Hong Kong protester figurines have become the latest must-have collectables as toy stores recreate the pro-democracy movement’s street battles with police in their shop displays.

Stacked on shelves next to comic book superheroes, the models come in a variety of shapes and sizes, some holding make-shift shields and flags, others extinguishing tear gas rounds or playing instruments in protest orchestras.

A local figurine enthusiast and his friend designed dozens of characters based on their own experiences of attending months of protests.

Among their 1:6 scale figures are white-collar workers who hold regular lunchtime rallies outside their offices, elderly “silver-haired” protesters and a demonstrator wearing an oversized Pepe the Frog mask.

“We hope the figurines can reconstruct the situation with authenticity,” said Charlie, a 30-year-old freelance photographer by day, who asked to use a pseudonym.

Among the 1:6 scale figures are journalists and white-collar workers © AFP / Philip FONG

Their models boast many features of the street protests, which have upended Hong Kong for the last seven months in the most serious challenge to Beijing’s rule since the city’s 1997 handover.

Slogans have been painstakingly painted onto small helmets and some models have cling-film wrapped around their arms — a method protesters use to defend against police pepper spray.

Others have scrapes on their legs from street skirmishes and almost all have removable gas masks that have become ubiquitous during the protests.

“We want to make them as detailed as possible so that they can evoke empathy in people,” Charlie said.

– ‘Self-censorship’ –

Some of the parts came from the duo’s own military toy collections or were made with 3D printers.

Other elements were built from scratch.

For a reporter figurine, the pair hand-stitched a tiny camera bag while popsicle sticks have been transformed into wooden shields used by hardcore activists.

Two of their frontline figure characters — named after the lyrics of the protest anthem “Glory to Hong Kong” — have gone into mass production after the pair became a hit online.

“I want to raise peoples’ awareness within the movement and hopefully the figurines will allow more people to know what has happened in Hong Kong,” Charlie said.

The different parts of the figures had to be manufactured in seven countries to avoid political sensitivities — especially in mainland China © AFP / Philip FONG

Priced at about HK$900 (US$116) per set, the different parts of their products had to be manufactured in seven countries to avoid political sensitivities — especially in mainland China.

“A water bottle or a helmet is not sensitive by itself. But after this movement began, they are seen as sensitive… This is self-censorship,” said Charlie.

One manufacturer, he said, suddenly refused to make yellow raincoats, a symbol of the movement which has adopted the colour.

“When that happens, we have to start all over again,” he said.

Hong Kong’s protests were sparked by a now-abandoned proposal to allow extraditions to the authoritarian mainland, where the opaque legal system answers to the Communist Party.

It soon morphed into a wider movement calling for greater freedoms and police accountability.

Among key protester demands are an independent inquiry into the police, an amnesty for the thousands arrested and fully free elections.

But Beijing and local leaders have refused further concessions.

– Subway station clash –

The frequency and ferocity of the protests have died down over the last month, but signs of the political unrest are everywhere, from graffiti daubed on walls to huge fences surrounding government buildings.

Around 1,000 sets of figurines they designed have been sold so far © AFP / Philip FONG

In some of the city’s toy-shops, the protest figurines are selling like hotcakes.

At one shop in Wanchai district, the owner has created an action-packed diorama of a clash outside a subway station, complete with ranks of riot police and protesters smashing up a taxi.

“People play with toys in pursuit of happiness, especially during hard times,” said the shop owner, who asked for anonymity fearing reprisals in the febrile political atmosphere.

Charlie said he primarily sells his models online after some toy stores received threatening calls telling them not to sell political products.

Around 1,000 sets of figurines they designed have been sold so far, with the profits going to groups that support the pro-democracy movement.

“Hong Kong people gave us the opportunity to create these figures and we hope to use the money to help protesters in return,” he said.

In darks times, he added, the models can raise spirits.

“We hope they can console people emotionally,” he said.

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Document trove shows how ‘Africa’s richest woman’ stole fortune: ICIJ




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An award-winning investigative team published a trove of files Sunday allegedly showing how Africa’s richest woman syphoned hundreds of millions of dollars of public money into offshore accounts.

The New York-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) worked with newspapers such as Munich’s Suddeutsche Zeitung to reveal the “Panama Papers” tax haven scandal in 2016.

Its latest series called “Luanda Leaks” zeros in on Isabel dos Santos, the daughter of former Angola president Jose Eduardo dos Santos.

Angola’s prosecutors last month froze the bank accounts and assets owned by the 46-year-old businesswoman and her Congolese husband Sindika Dokolo, which she described as a groundless political vendetta.

“Based on a trove of more than 715,000 files, our investigation highlights a broken international regulatory system that allows professional services firms to serve the powerful with almost no questions asked,” the ICIJ wrote.


The group said its team of 120 reporters in 20 countries was able to trace “how an army of Western financial firms, lawyers, accountants, government officials and management companies helped (dos Santos and Dokolo) hide assets from tax authorities”.

Dos Santos took to Twitter to refute the claims, launching a salvo of around 30 tweets in Portuguese and English, and accusing journalists involved in the investigation of telling “lies”.

“My fortune is built on my character, my intelligence, education, capacity for work, perseverance,” she wrote.

She also blasted “the racism and prejudice” of SIC-Expresso, a Portuguese TV station and newspaper, and member of the ICIJ, “that recall the colonial era when an African could never be considered equal to a European”.


Dos Santos’s lawyer dismissed the ICIJ findings as a “highly coordinated attack” orchestrated by Angola’s current rulers, in a statement quoted by The Guardian newspaper.

Dos Santos herself told BBC Africa the file dump was part of a “witch hunt” meant to discredit her and her father.

The former president’s daughter headed Angola’s national oil company Sonangol. Forbes magazine last year estimated her net worth at $2.2 billion.

Her father’s successor Joao Lourenco forced her out of the oil company after becoming president in 2017.

Dos Santos said on Wednesday that she would consider running for president in the next election in 2022.

The ICIJ investigation said Western consulting firms such as PwC and Boston Consulting Group were “apparently ignoring red flags” while helping her stash away public assets.

“Regulators around the globe have virtually ignored the key role Western professionals play in maintaining an offshore industry that drives money laundering and drains trillions from public coffers,” the report said.

Its document trove included redacted letters allegedly showing how consultants sought out ways to open non-transparent bank accounts.

One confidential document allegedly drafted by Boston Consulting in September 2015 outlined a complex scheme for the oil company to move its money offshore.

The investigation also published a similar 99-page presentation from KPMG.

None of the companies named issued immediate statements in response to the investigation.



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East Africa: Lapsset Project Adopted By AU in Move to Boost Continent’s Free Trade Area




Kenya’s mega Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia-Transport (Lapsset) Corridor Programme has been adopted as an African Union project and redesigned to link the Lamu port on the eastern African Coast of the Indian Ocean to Douala port in the western Africa Atlantic Ocean.

The adoption means it is now under the African Union and elevates the project’s status to attract foreign direct investment and other financiers compared with its status during the launch in 2012. It also means the implementation will now be a regional affair under the AU, and will be important to the realisation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).

The Africa Union’s High Representative for Infrastructure Development in Africa, Raila Odinga, made the announcement at a ceremony last week in Mombasa, Kenya. The ceremony was attended by ministers from Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan, who signed a memorandum of understanding for development and funding, which was preceded by a three-day technical team meeting to discuss the future of the project.

The meeting was also attended by prospective financiers of the project including the African Development Bank (AfDB), the United Nations Economic Mission of Africa and the African Union’s New Partnership for Africa Development (Nepad).

Last July, the Lapsset Development Authority applied — to the AU Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), under Nepad and subsequently to the Presidential Infrastructure Champion Initiative (PICI) project under the AU Commission — for consideration under the AU flagship projects of Agenda 2063 after facing financial constraints and lack of political will, which has slowed its implementation.

The Lapsset authority argued that the project had potential to boost continental integration.

Mr Daniel Osiemo, Nepad Kenya’s representative, said the corridor project is the only PIDI project and the largest in eastern Africa with a market catchment of more than 160 million people.

“This infrastructure development will promote the achievement of the AfCFTA and the inter connectivity will enhance movement of goods and services,” said Mr Osiemo, adding, “Lack of infrastructure was cited as a major impediment in doing business and this project will create a link from Lamu port and help ease trade by reducing the distance through an efficient land transport system.”

“Ethiopia is a large country and we need infrastructure to make business cheaper, that is why we are investing in the Lapsset corridor and we have already tarmacked more than 500 kilometres of road from Moyale to Awasa. Our presence here should send a clear signal that we are for the project,” said Ethiopia’s ambassador to Kenya Melos Alem, who witnessed the signing of the MoU. He refuted claims that Ethiopia had abandoned the Lapsset project in favour of Eritrea’s ports of Assab and Massawa, which are closer to the country. He also added that southern Ethiopia, with a population of 50 million people, will be best served by the Lamu port.

The initial design of the project was to cover Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan, but the redesign and adoption by the AU will see the project connect East Africa with West Africa to facilitate the AfCFTA and also make it easy when lobbying to be considered under the AU programme.

“The new regional project implementation programme will assist partner countries to hasten the development of the project and this commitment will attract more financiers to bring this project to success. In the past, each country has been funding its own projects but the MoU will facilitate crowd funding,” said Mr Odinga.


“The project has been adopted by the AU and this will give it an upper hand in crowd funding,” said Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary for Transport James Macharia.

The project will comprise roads, railways, ports, pipelines and special economic zones, to be implemented in two phases, starting with the Lamu-Isiolo-Addis Ababa to Djibouti by road and rail, while the second phase will connect Lamu to Kribi/Doula in Cameroon via Juba in South Sudan and Bangui in Central African Republic.

Lapsset joins the ranks of other continental corridors such as East Africa’s Northern Corridor and Central Corridor.

Some of the projects under the Presidential Infrastructure Champion Initiative being considered by the AU are the Nigeria-Algeria gas pipeline project (Trans-Sahara Gas Pipeline); Missing links on the Trans-Sahara highway and optic fibre link between Algeria and Nigeria; Dakar-Ndjamena-Djibouti road/rail project. Others are North-South Corridor road/rail project; Kinshasa-Brazzaville bridge road/rail project; Unblocking political bottlenecks for ICT broadband and optic fibre projects linking neighbouring states and construction of navigational line between Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea.